Immunotherapy For Metastatic Melanoma

What is an immuno-therapy?

Immuno-therapies are a relatively recent development that are sometimes used in the treatment of cancer. They may work by attacking the cancer cells directly, or by activating a patient’s own immune system to mount an effective attack against the cancer.


The TUMOR INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTE (TIL) therapy being studied in this trial is an investigational immunotherapy named lifileucel (LN-144).

TIL are derived from a patient’s own immune cells called lymphocytes, and specifically T lymphocytes that can recognize and potentially kill the patient’s own cancer cells. Some of these cells naturally travel to, and penetrate existing cancerous tumors, and are then referred to as TUMOR INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES (TIL). However, for various reasons the immune-suppressive environment of the cancerous tumors limits their number and activity which diminishes their ability to effectively attack the cancer.

The TIL therapy under investigation in this clinical trial, lifileucel (LN-144), is derived through isolation of a patient’s own naturally occurring TIL from a sample of cancerous tumor removed from the patient. After TIL are extracted from the tumor, they are multiplied in a laboratory until billions of TIL are obtained. Prior to receipt of TIL, patients receive a pre-conditioning therapy to reduce the immune suppressive environment of cancer that remains in the patient. The expanded TIL are then administered via intravenous infusion back to the patient as lifileucel (LN-144; TIL therapy), with the intention that the TIL will target and infiltrate cancer in the patient and attack the cancer in greater number. Patients receive up to 6 doses of interleukin 2 (IL-2) immediately following TIL infusion to support growth and activation of the TIL in the patient, and to augment the anti-cancer activity of the TIL therapy.


  1. Tumor is surgically isolated from patient.
  2. Tumor sample is shipped to the GMP facility where TIL are isolated and multiplied to generate billions of TIL over three weeks.
  3. Patient initiates a week of pre-conditioning therapy to prepare to receive TIL.
  4. TIL product is administered as a one-time therapy followed by up to 6 doses of IL-2 to support growth and activation of the TIL therapy inside the patient.

TIL Therapy has been Studied in Patients Since 1988


TIL therapy is based on an adoptive cell therapy regimen that was developed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and which is currently being applied at a small selection of leading cancer centers around the world. So far, most of the data on TIL therapy has been obtained from studies in metastatic melanoma, a form of aggressive skin cancer, as well as cervical cancer.

Recent data from two trials at the NCI in patients with metastatic melanoma confirmed TIL treatment was associated with high, durable objective responses. In a 93 patient Phase 2 trial, the objective response rate (ORR) was 56%.1  Another trial of 101 patients observed complete responses (CR, total elimination of detectable tumors) in 24% of patients, some of whom were free of disease for more than four years. 2


C-144-01 is a Phase 2 clinical trial, enrolling patients that have been diagnosed with Stage IIIc or IV metastatic melanoma. Patients must have received at least one prior treatment with systemic therapy including an immune checkpoint inhibitor, and if BRAF mutation positive, a BRAF inhibitor.

The clinical trial is designed to determine if Iovance investigational TIL therapy lifileucel (LN-144) is safe and effective for the treatment of metastatic melanoma (helps patients live longer and/or slow down cancer progression).

There are several objectives to the trial, some of which aim to determine:

  • Whether lifileucel (LN-144) reduces or slows the progression of metastatic melanoma.
  • Whether lifileucel (LN-144) eliminates all detectable metastatic melanoma.
  • Whether treatment with lifileucel (LN-144) extends the life of a patient without their cancer worsening.

lifileucel (LN-144) is an investigational therapy that is being tested in clinical studies and has not been approved by the FDA or any other agency for any indication. A clinical trial is designed to explore efficacy and safety of experimental therapies. You should talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of participating in this trial.



  • You have been diagnosed with metastatic melanoma
  • Your cancer progressed during or following previous therapy
  • You have received prior checkpoint inhibitor therapy, and if BRAF mutation positive, a BRAF inhibitor
  • You are at least 18 years old


If you satisfy these key eligibility criteria, you may be eligible to participate in this clinical trial.  There are other additional eligibility criteria that can only be assessed by a trial physician.

To talk with somebody and to learn more about the trial, please call: 1-866-565-4410

Further details for healthcare providers can be accessed below:

Trial Sites Currently Enrolling Patients

City State Institution
San Francisco California California Pacific Medical Center
La Jolla California UCSD – Moores Cancer Center
Santa Monica California The Angeles Clinic
Los Angeles California University of California Los Angeles
Aurora Colorado University of Colorado Cancer Center
New Haven Connecticut Yale University
Tampa Florida University of South Florida H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
Orlando Florida University of Florida Health Cancer Center
Miami Florida Mount Sinai
Indianapolis Indiana Indiana University
Louisville Kentucky James Graham Brown Cancer Center
Minneapolis Minnesota University of Minnesota, Masonic Cancer Center
Morristown New Jersey Atlantic Health System
Buffalo New York Roswell Park
New York New York New York University Langone Medical Center
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania UPMC – Hillman Cancer Center
Philadelphia Pennsylvania Thomas Jefferson University
Richmond Virginia Virginia Commonwealth Univ.
Seattle Washington Seattle Cancer Care Alliance
Milwaukee Wisconsin Medical College of Wisconsin
Villejuif Cedex France Gustave Roussy
Limoges Cedex France Hôpital Dupuytren
Lyon France Centre Léon Bérard
Pierre-Bénite France Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud
Munich Germany Technischen Universität München
Heidelberg Germany Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg
Tübingen Germany Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen
Erlangen Germany Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
Halle/Saale Germany Universitätsklinikum Halle
Dresden Germany Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus
Leipzig Germany Universitätsklinikum Leipzig
Würzburg Germany Universitätsklinikum Würzburg
Szeged Hungary Szegedi Tudomanyegyetem Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ
Aviano Italy Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano
Pamplona Spain Clínica Universidad de Navarra
Barcelona Spain Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebrón
Barcelona Spain Hospital Clinic de Barcelona
Barcelona Spain Institut Català d’Oncologia
Madrid Spain Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañon
Madrid Spain Hospital 12 de Octubre
Madrid Spain HM Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal
Madrid Spain Hospital Universitario Quirónsalud Madrid
Valencia Spain Consorci Hospital General Universitari de València
Bern Switzerland Inselspital
Lausanne Switzerland Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois Lausanne – Centre Pluridisciplinaire d’Oncologie
London United Kingdom Sarah Cannon Research Institute London
Cambridge United Kingdom Addenbrooke’s Hospital
Glasgow United Kingdom Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre

1 Rosenberg, S.A., et al. Durable Complete Responses in Heavily Pretreated Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Using T-Cell Transfer Immunotherapy. Clinical Cancer Research, 17(13), 4550-4557.

2 Goff, S.L., et al. Randomized, Prospective Evaluation Comparing Intensity of Lymphodepletion Before Adoptive Transfer of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Patients with Metastatic Melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2016; 34(20), 2389-2397.